The Power Industry is the backbone of the industrial world, supplying essential energy to industrial, manufacturing, commercial and residential customers around the globe. In developed economies with mature power markets, investment is driven by transition of fuel and energy sources, increased environmental legislation and an ever-aging generation fleet and transmission/distribution infrastructure. In contrast, developing economies continue to expand their power bases to meet growing demand for electricity-starved regions. For these reasons, the Power Industry continues to have the largest investments and number of projects in the industrial world.
Oil & Gas
Oil and gas are our primary source of energy and has been around for quite some time. Through research, oil and gas as a source of energy is developed into a unit that may be used in grades seven through nine science classes. The length of the unit should be two wells. The unit will address itself toward the explanation of how oil and gas was formed, prospecting for oil, oil and gas supply and demand, oil consumption, oil production primary, secondary, and tertiary recovery, refining of oil, transportation of oil and gas, oil pollution, how long will oil last, and where gas is found. Included are also a career, lesson plans, experiment, a reading list for students and teacher, vocabulary list and a bibliography.
Petroleum refining processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries (also referred to as oil refineries) to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils.
Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations.
Generally, crude petroleum is heated and changed into a gas. The hot gases are passed into the bottom of a distillation column and become cooler as they move up the height of the column. As the gases cool below their boiling point, they condense into a liquid. The liquids are then drawn off the distilling column at specific heights, ranging from heavy resids at the bottom, raw diesel fuels in the mid-sections, and raw gasoline at the top. These raw fractions are then processed further to make several different finished products.
The simplest refineries consist of crude, vacuum, reforming and some hydrotreating capacity. The next level of complexity adds cat cracking and some additional hydrotreating. The most complex refineries add coking, more hydrotreating and hydrocracking
Petrochemicals, also called petroleum distillates, are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane.
Petrochemical plants convert natural resources such as crude oil, natural gas, ores and minerals into products for a wide range of applications. They produce many important building blocks for industry processes, including ethylene, propylene, butadiene, and aromatics.